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Service industry in rural areal institutional resources processes forming



Development of rural areas is one of the most important problems of the economy of Russia because the observed decrease of rural population entrepreneurial and social activity leads to deprivation of a rural community self-development ability, to rural population mass migration to cities, to formation of system contradictions in processes of territorial development of the country. For social society sustainable development provision, social resources formation of rural territories development should be considered as strategic aims of Russian policy.

The statement of the problem

Social resources of rural areas development could be estimated as “a system of relationships reflecting the specifics of life conditions and rural community activity and peculiarities of its state in a social structure, in all the variety of modern institutions and processes, real and potential opportunities, instruments and reserves that the modern Russian society possesses”. When resting upon the modern sociological theories, it's necessary to note that “social relationships are incorporated in the sphere of social activity, the objects of which are human activity main forms provision, high level and quality of life of people achievement”.

It is expedient to consider the following as the main bearers of social resources of rural areas development:
- social structures (rural settlement and rural household);
- social subjects of rural territories (local authorities, non-government organizations, commercial organizations and network business structures);
- social technologies.

The following could be marked out in the structure of social resources of rural areas development:
- human resources of rural areas;
- institutions of private investors and business of non-agricultural orientation which form the processes of rural areas social and economic development;
- civil society institutions oriented to a rural economy and acting as channels of social groups public interaction in rural communities problems solution.

When solving the issues of rural areas development, it is necessary to note that one of the methodological problems is absence of the unified interpretation of the notion of “rural area”. Most of researches in the home science suggest to consider a rural territory as a settlement in the countryside, the specific features of which are rural way of life and agriculture and the main form of activity of population. The European Council characterizes rural areas as “inner or coastal regions which include small towns and villages, act as reserves or settled territories, where agriculture, forestry, aquaculture and fishery are used, possibilities of economic and cultural activity for countrymen and possibilities of recreation and leisure time spending exist”

Absence of unified approaches to the methodology of rural areas development puts forward the necessity of elaboration of a complex model which takes into account economic, social and ecological components of rural areas development conception. Solution of these questions requires first of all estimation of human resources of rural areas.

Within the framework of rural areas human resources estimation it is necessary to note that a steady tendency of mass migration of rural population to cities could be observed in Russia during several decades. It resulted in forming of sparsely-populated, depressive territories, loss of human development potential in rural areas. One of the reasons of rural territories' loss of active population is absence of differentiated approach to rural areas development conception, orientation to a narrow sectoral programme of rural economy development. Lack of complex approach to rural areas development, orientation to a narrow sectoral agricultural variant of population activity in rural area resulted in loss of human resources and decrease of ability of non-agricultural business attraction to processes of rural areas social and economic development.

In the opinion of experts, the village itself extrudes local population to cities as a result of lack of job, low salary, bad conditions of life, undeveloped infrastructure of rural areas, absence of prospects of life in the village. The flow of migrants to rural area is represented mainly by agricultural labour migrants from other states (China, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan). Migration of this category of population has a range of sufficient disadvantages, since it is principally a reversionary migration, it is connected with assimilation of ethnic groups on Russian territory, i. e. with possibility of social tension rise on ethnic basis, it may threaten territorial and cultural integrity of Russian Federation. In this connection actual is the question of foreign resettlers attraction from the Russian-speaking zone with a complex of conditions creation in rural area. In the opinion of experts, migration to rural areas might be possible even when the following conditions are fulfilled:
- availability of job in rural area;
- competitive level of salary;
- presence of available accommodation;
- presence of developed infrastructure of rural areas

In accordance with expert estimation, inside Russian Federation, the main social groups for migration into rural area are residents of monocities, retirement and pre-retirement persons, dismissed staff of security agencies, high school graduates, a range of migrants from rural area to cities, urban unemployed. However, it is necessary to take into account that town dwellers could not be considered as a labour resource of agricultural production. When migrating to rural area, this category of population will direct its attention mainly to non-agricultural activity.


Business of non-agricultural orientation allowing to use and develop rural area resources (natural, labour, cultural and historical, recreational) has a significant interest in solving the problems of rural areas social and economic development. One of the priority directions of this business is use of tourist industry for rural areas development.

The use of tourist industry should be considered as the most important instrument of rural areas development in solving the problems of both regional and federal level. Tourist industry allows to solve economic, social and ecological problems of rural area and of the society in whole/ In the first case, it is necessary to note the possibility of small entrepreneurship forms development in the countryside, the attraction of private investments in rural areas development, the expansion of assortment of vernacular arts, farming and gardening production, rural population employment provision, rural areas social infrastructure development, rural population quality of life increase.

One of the variants of tourist industry application for rural areas development is ecological tourism. Rural tourism might be considered as its modification. This kind of tourism bases upon and successfully realizes in practice the principles of the territory sustainable development conception:
- use of natural resource management processes which do not lead to resource degradation;
- formation of rural area potential in five aspects: functional, hygienic, esthetic, technical and economic and environmental;
- preservation and regeneration of natural complexes when transferring natural resources into the recreational potential of rural area;
- enhancement of the role of ecological tourism in social development by means of its social functions realization (relaxational, health-improving, educational and pedagogic).

Tourist industry allows to solve the problems of quality enhancement of social and group structure of the society by means of the increase of demand on qualified, highly educated cadres employment in rural areas, correction of differences in the quality of life of urban and rural population. At the same time it is necessary to note that the level of rural areas development depends to a considerable extent on the fitting of rural community quality of life to its modern social standards. However, specialists in this field mark the absence of formalized norms of rural population life sustenance, which does not allow to implement researches of Russian rural areas in issues of quality of life in accordance with international standards. It is expedient to consider the following factors in the group of quality of life indicators in accordance with international standards:
- access to medical and educational services of all members of a rural household;
- infrastructural and engineering equipment of a rural household;
- personal safety and access to legal systems;
- access to credit and insurance programmes;
- access to systems of employment and social guarantees;
- access to informational systems of public and other services obtaining;
- ecological environment of a rural household.

For estimation of social resources of rural areas development in international and home science and practice it is suggested to include such indicators as demographic potential of population, social security, social and economic stability, level of accessibility of key social benefits, social activity of population, maturity of public forms of management, technological modernization of rural areas, interaction of rural population with bodies of government.

Specialists mark the following indicators of quality of life of a single person in rural areas:
- the indicator of satisfaction of social status, place of residence, quality of life;
- the indicator of accessibility of social benefits (accommodation, consumer services, education, medicine, social security, information);
- the indicator of satisfaction of material, social, cultural needs;
- the indicator of possibilities of family and career creation, professional development, recreation;
- the indicator of social intentions (resettlement, job search, getting education).


As a strategic aim of human resources management in rural areas, it is expedient to consider formation of social resources of development by means of population social activity processes stimulation, local authorities self-organization forms realization, population cultural and professional competences enhancement in different fields of activity connected with labour and consumption structure.

When solving the strategic state task, which consists in formation of civil society institutions oriented towards the countryside and participating in rural communities problems solution, the realization of the tourist industry function will allow:
- to realize urban population ideology socialization processes by means of formation of ecological culture including new, important for sustainable development of the society value orientations and behaviour adequate to the ecologic codex;
- to form tolerant attitude of the society to rural culture and ethnic groups, to way of life and traditions adapted to natural habitat;
- to stimulate modern forms of natural resource management, ecologically pure foodstuff production;
- to increase volumes of investments of social institutions in infrastructure, service, protection of nature;
- to promote development of local government forms;
- to provide development of special education aimed at training of specialists of tourist and environmental professions;
- to increase the effectiveness of state and public structures activity in the field of ecological law violations control and prevention;
- to create informational system of data about state, preservation and development of natural environment.

Rural areas development models formation through social resources requires coordination of actions of business communities, state and public institutions and rural community within the framework of social interactions processes realization in rural areas.

Полный текст: Евдокимова Л.О., Евдокимов К.О. Сервисная индустрия в процессах формирования институциональных ресурсов сельских территорий России // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. 2015. № 5-3 (36). С. 39-41.